Let's learn Basic Grammar - Nouns

The most basic part of speech (A classification of words according to how they are used in a sentence and the types of ideas they convey) is noun. What is noun?


1. A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.
2. Nouns are divided into five different kinds : --

Proper Nouns
Common Nouns
Collective nouns
Material Nouns
Abstract Nouns

A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing.

eg : John ( person ) ; Palm Beach County ( place ) ; The Chinese ( people );

Books ( thing )

A Common Noun is a name that can be given to any person or thing of the same kind.

eg : Man, boy, table, dog

A Collective Noun is singular in form though denoting more than one.

eg : Herd, army, flock.

A Material Noun is the name of a substance

eg : Milk, iron, wood.

An Abstract noun is the name of a quality.

eg : Love, truth, color.

Number of Nouns

1. Number shows whether one is meant, or more than one.

2. There are two Numbers : --

The Singular Number
The Plural Number

The Singular number denotes only one object.
boy, girl

The Plural number denotes more than one object.
boys, girls.



The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular :

pen pens chair chairs
book books garden gardens

When the noun ends in s, x, ch, or sh, the Plural is formed by adding es to the Singular : -

glass glasses watch watches
box boxes dish dishes

If the noun ends in y, and the y has consonant going before it, the Plural is formed by changing y into ies : -

duty duties army armies
fly flies lady ladies

But if the y has vowel going before it, the Plural is formed by simply adding s : --

day days key keys
boy boys monkey monkeys

Most nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves

calf calves life lives
knife knives wife wives
leaf leaves thief thieves

If the noun ends in o, and the o is preceded by a consonant, the Plural is generally ( not always ) formed by adding es to the Singular : --

cargo cargoes negro negroes
hero heroes potato potatoes

But if the o is preceded by a vowel, the Plural is formed by simply adding s to the singular : --

bamboo bamboos curio curios
cuckoo cuckoos studio studios

Some nouns from their Plurals irregularly :

man men tooth teeth
woman women mouse mice
foot feet ox oxen
goose geese child children

Some Nouns have the same from in the Plural as in the Singular : -

deer deer fish fish ( fishes )
sheep sheep dozen dozen ( dozens )


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